Civil and political rights

Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals’ freedoms and rights that ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state without discrimination or repression. Civil and Political rights are often referred as first-generation rights. Civil rights ensure equal social opportunities and equal protection under the law, regardless of race, religion, or other personal characteristics. Some of the civil rights include right to life, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, right to family life and right to movement. Political rights are the rights of people to participate in the political life of their communities. Political rights include right to vote, right to run for public office and freedom of assembly and freedom of association. While civil rights are universal as human rights, political rights are often limited to citizens. Civil and Political rights are protected under various international and regional treaties as well as in national constitutions. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is the most comprehensive treaty which provides protection of these rights at international level.

Important Documents